Wetlands can be defined as the areas of peat, fen, marshlands where natural, artificial, temporary, or permanent water is flowing or static, salty or fresh, brackish with a depth of low tides that does not exceed six meters.
For the conservation of wetlands first time, an international convention was held at Ramsar, in Iran on February 2nd, 1971.
But in Pakistan wetland convention was brought first time in 1967, signed by the Pakistani government, became a member that convention in 1976 at that time Pakistan has only 9 globally significant wetlands or wetlands covering an area of 7800 sq. km.
But nowadays, Pakistan has 19 wetlands. There are 225 or 223 wetlands are present in Pakistan, but only 19 are wetlands. Out of these 19, eight are wildlife sanctuaries, three are game reserves and the remaining eight are part of national parks or may have unknown status.
Types of wetlands
There are five major types of wetlands
- Marine wetlands: Wetlands include coastal lagoon rocky shore, coral reef.
- Estuarine: This type of wetlands includes deltas tidal marshes and mangrove swamps.
- Palustuarine: Wetlands including marshy marshes and bogs.
- Riverine: It includes wetlands along with rivers and streams.
- Lacustrine: Wetlands associated with lakes.
Importance of wetlands
Wetlands have great importance because they act as Paradise or Heaven for various migratory and other waterfowls therefore, wetlands should conserve for the protection or conservation of biodiversity especially for waterfowl.
Following of the names of wetlands of Pakistan. i.e., hali complex,Tunsa barrage, Thanedar wala, Tanda dam, Runn of kutch, Ormara turtle beaches, Noori lagoon, Miani hor, Kinjhar lake, Jubho lagoon, Jiwani coastal wetlands, Indus dolphin reserves, Hub dam, Indus deltas, Hleji lake, Drigh lake, Astola islands, Chasma barrage, Deh akora 2nd, Uchali complex.
A large natural semi freshwater lake in Pakistan with extensive red beds especially in western and northern parts. It is the combination of two lakes naming Sonheri and Keenjhar lake in reality. It is also known as kalri lake.
- Location: 122km away from Karachi Thatta District of province Sindh in Pakistan
- Temperature: Varies from 24.57c to68.03F
- Area: 13468ha with a surface elevation of 15m.
- Designated: 23 July 1976
- Status: Wildlife sanctuary
It provides favorable environmental conditions to various migratory birds like ducks geese, flaming, tens coots and ibises, etc. Climate The climatic conditioned of kinjhar lake are arid dry subtropical, monsoonal with 200mm annual rainfall. Biodiversity There are various species of wild animals are present in the area of this lake.
- Birds 65 species of waterfowls and some other birds species are present
- Fishes 55 species of fishes are also present.
- Mammals 98 species of small and large mammals are also present.
- Amphibians Only 2 species of amphibians are present.
- Reptiles there are 29 species of reptiles are also found in that area i.e., spiny-tailed lizard Indian monitor lizards, and crocodiles.