Home Blog

Volatile organic compounds | Source of air pollution

volatile organic compounds
volatile organic compounds

Volatile organic compounds are characterized as those organic chemicals with huge vapor pressure at normal room temperature. This huge vapor pressure is as a development of a minor boiling point, which results as the causation of more molecules are evaporated from the surface of the solid or liquid compound and penetrates into the air to cause volatility.

Such as the formaldehyde with the boiling point of just -19° C is evaporated from the paint and extracted from the resin. There are many varying volatile organic compound which is present everywhere. These chemical compounds are present in nature and made by human.

Such as odors or scent are a volatile organic compound. Volatile organic compounds are important for the transfer of messages between plants and animals and also play a major role in transmission from plant to plant. Whoever the volatile organic compound is alarming to the health of human or also the causation of damage to the environment.

Exclusively indoor volatile organic compounds whose concentration is at the greatest level are governed by the law. Commonly adverse volatile organic compound increases the effect on health for a long time and are not extremely toxic. This is because their aggregation is commonly in low quantity and their symptoms are minor for their establishment.

Definition of volatile organic compounds

The US used the volatile organic compound definition which is used for the checking of the forerunner of photochemical smog. In the US state agencies and Environmental Protection Agencies with the autonomous free air pollution arrangement contains the exception of volatile organic compound that is not reactive or having low reactivity in the compilation of the smog process.

Checking demand for volatile organic compounds is varying from states to states in the US. In California, the conclusion obtained by the south coast district of Air Quality Management and California air resource board are more remarkable in the volatile organic compound arrangement.

The use of reactive organic gases by the California ARB for the measurement of organic gases after the conception of the public.

Biologically generated VOCs.

Methane eject carbon 1150 teragrams In a year in the structure of volatile organic compounds. The major compound of volatile organic compounds is isoprene and more of its quantity is formed by the plants. The remnants are formed by microbes and plants.

If we use microbial plant pathogen then it is more profitable. The odor which is ejected by the plants also consists of leafy green volatiles and is influenced by the factors which are sunlight and temperature. 

The ejection of odor takes place in the stomata of the leaves. Most of the volatile organic compounds are terpenes such that myrcene. It provides a sense of scale in the area of Pennsylvania of the US state is 62000 km² and survey to eject 3,400,000 kilograms of terpenes in the growing season.

Anthropogenic sources volatile organic compounds

Carbon is ejected from the anthropogenic sources in the appearance of a volatile organic compound.

Specific components.

paints and coatings.

The main origin of the volatile organic compound which is made by man is coatings such as careful coatings and paints. The careful and embellishing film is dispersed by the solvent. Paints of 12 billion liters are formed in a year. Glycol ethers, acetone, ethyl acetate, and aliphatic hydrocarbon are common solvent. Due to environmental establishment and arrangement coating and paint industries

Chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons.

Chlorofluorocarbon that is prohibited is used on a wide scale for the refrigerants and cleaning the product. Tetrachloroethene is used on a wide scale for dry cleaning.

Fossil fuel.

Fossil fuel is also used to form the product such as gasoline by directly or indirectly it is used as byproduct such as automobile exhaust gas. Another such component such as benzene, methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, and formaldehyde.

If the volatile organic compound is exposed to the indoor environment it can be devoted to infected the building syndrome. A volatile organic compound is used in the coverings of the wall, new furnishing and the equipment which is used in the office e.g photocopy machine.

There is two methods for the measurement of volatile organic compound one is the national institute for occupational safety and health and the other is by OSHA.

A single component solvent is used for each method. The aromatic volatile organic compound such as benzene which is ejected from the cigarette smoke is known as carcinogen and it is ten times more smoker than the nonsmokers. In the indoor environment, VOCs concentration in winter is 3 to 4 times higher than the VOCs concentration in summer.

Indoor air quality measurement.

The volatile organic compound measurement takes place with the sorption tubes in the indoor air such as Tenax or DNPH-cartridges. A volatile organic compound is adsorbed from the material and then it is desorbed by thermally.

Indoor is used for the product ejecting of volatile organic compounds such as furniture and building product and they are examined in the emission test chamber in a checked climatic condition. If we determine the measurement for the quality control round robin test is performed.

Regulation of indoor VOCs emissions.

In many countries, a different definition of the volatile organic compound is used. On the Tenax TA the adsorption of the volatile organic compound in the air, separation from gas chromatography on the 100% nonpolar column and thermal desorption.

A volatile organic compound is a compound that is shown in the gas chromatogram in between the n-hexane and n-hexadecane. Compound that is shown in the prior is called a very volatile organic compound and compound that are shown in subsequent is called a semi-volatile organic compound.

Health risks due to volatile organic compounds

A man-made volatile organic compound such as respiratory, allergic aftereffect the infants and the air pollutants of indoor or outdoor. Most of the volatile organic compound e.g limonene and styrene react with the ozone and nitrogen oxides to form the secondary aerosols and the oxidation of the product that is the causation of provocation symptoms.

Smog and tropospheric ozone are formed by the volatile organic compound. Provocation of the throat, nose, and eye, coordination loss, nausea, kidney, liver, and central nervous system damage. Organic chemicals which cause health effect are varying from more toxic to the less toxic health effect and rely upon many factors exposure level, and the time that it is exposed. Most of the organic compounds are able to cause cancer.

Reducing exposure VOCs

If we reduce the exposure of these toxins then we obtain the products with No VOCs or low-VOCs. When the design of building and homes is made the designing team use the best apparatus for ventilation plans and can reduce the infiltration from the building.

By this method, we advance the indoor air quality but by this method, the building becomes dragging to breathe.

Limit values for VOC emission.

California department of public health, AgBB, ASSET, and others published the limit values of VOC emission. This arrangement has eager the many companies of the adhesive and paint industries to modify the VOC level for the compression of the product. In a tinted paint if an ounce of color is added 5 to 20 g of VOC is present in it. 5 to 15 ounce of color is added in dark color and 300 or more gram of volatile organic compound is added in a gallon of paint.

Chemical fingerprinting.

Few thousand of VOC is also present in the exhaled breath consume for the breath biopsy to test for the lung cancer. A volatile organic compound is also bloodborne and is able to monitor the processes of the body. It indicates that the volatile organic compound is formed either by metabolic processes such that environmental tobacco smoke.

Researchers are made to indicate that either the cell processes or cancerous tumors in the lung use the volatile organic compound in the body.

Principle and measurement method.

By the interaction in an organic compound and sensor components, a volatile organic compound in the environment is detected. Sometimes the odor of VOC is detected by the human nose as by the wine, coffee, and paper. Electronic devices that detect the concentration in ppm.

We can determine the accurate measurement of volatile organic compound and their molecular structures in atmosphere or environment and is used for the monitoring of chemical fingerprint and health monitoring devices.

In order to store the VOC at less concentration, a solid-phase microextraction technique is used for analysis purposes. For the measurement of a high concentration of VOC, a lower explosion limit is used. For the faster detection of VOC, direct injection of mass spectrometry technique is used.

For the on-line diagnose of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC. Recent a detection limit of 20 ppt is obtained after 1-minute measurement by PTR.MS instrument that is based on the time of flight mass spectrometry. The massive resolution of the devices is from 7000 to 10500 m/∆m, thus we can obtain the isobaric VOC and can obtain their quantity independently.

Accuracy and traceability of VOC

Metrology for VOC measurement.

For the measurement of VOC, a standard SI unit is used. If many oxygenated VOC is available monoterpenes no standard VOC is required this is because the adsorption of the molecules takes place.

On the lacking of the standard gas mixture at minimum level concentration various national metrology institute are worked on this to improve the zero gas and minimize the adsorption process.

The final scope of the standard gas is traceability and stability and is in according to the data quality object and is obtained by the WMO/GAW program.     

Urban heat islands | Why temperature is so high in urban areas

urban heat islands
urban heat islands

Urban heat islands are the areas in which the temperature is so high at the night as compared to the day. The term urban heat or heat islands are used for both areas which are populated or non populated but the surrounding area must be temperate the urban heat island mostly occurs during the winter season and the summer season.

Causes of urban heat islands

There are many causes of the urban heat islands, some causes of the urban heat islands are as under

Human activities

The main cause of the urban heat island is the human activities in the urban areas is the human activities disturb the nature day by day by build the buildings construct the roads of cement so by these activities the urban area heat should be enhanced so in urban areas the roads construct by the sufficient amount of the cement and the sidewalks.

The footpath should construct by using the asphalt so the cement absorbs the heat are the radiations so by this the temperature are the heat should increase in the urban areas as compared to the surrounding rural or the undeveloped areas of that city

Low vegetation

The second main cause of the urban heat islands is the less vegetation or the less green coverage as we know the plants are the environmental buffers the plants occur the process of the extra transpiration

Extra transpiration

The transpiration so in evaporation, the water evaporates from the soil, plants tops and the transpiration is the process in which the water vapors  should form the stomata of the plant into the surrounding area is environment so in the urban areas due to development the plants and green vegetation are cut due to this the green vegetation are reduced.

Due to this the Co2 which is also known as the green house gas so due to less vegetation the absorption of the Co2 is decreased and due to this the heat doesn’t absorb and the temperature of the area should be increased

Over Population

The overpopulation is the big cause of the urban heat islands due to overpopulation the vegetation should be removed and construct the buildings for the living purposes and due to this in less area build a very huge and many buildings so due to this sun rays should be reflected and absorbed due to this the heat increased in the urban places as compared to the rural areas

Effects of urban heat islands

The urban heat islands affect the animals, weather and it also affects the human health severely the detail of the effects of the urban heat islands are as under

The effect of urban heat island on the weather

The urban heat islands not only increase the temperature of that area it should also influence are affect the weather condition of that area and due to this the precipitation level, cloud level, fog formation, humidity level, and the wind patterns of that area is affected due to the hot temperature the wind move upward due to this the 20 to 40 miles city are affected and the precipitation is also greater at 28 percent up to the city center

Effect of urban heat island on animals:

The urban heat island affect the animal’s life terribly. due to the heat islands the animal’s habitats and the colonies are affected for example the colonize of ants, common house geckos, and grey-headed flying fox recently the grey-headed flying fox move in Melbourne Australia due to increasing the temperature or the heat in the city limits.

Due to heat increase the winter climate is the same as the animals habitat the heat islands also affect the food and water supply for the animals for example due to the heat the buildings are so hot when the rainfall occurs the water runoff from the hot buildings and then the hot water runs off in streams and lakes.

Due to this the temperature of the streams and the lakes are increased at the 20 to 30 degree Fahrenheit it cause the thermal pollution it affects the fishes in streams lakes due to heat in the urban city the plants should be affected and due to this the food supply for the animals are also affected some animals depend on the plants for diet purposes and the animals match their breeding season to the plants growing season so due to the heat is increased in temperature the plants growing season should be extended so due to this, the breeding of the animals are also affected

Heat islands effects on human health

The urban heat islands not only affect the weather and the wildlife of that area it should also affect the human health of that area the temperature increased very severely during the summer season mostly the senior citizens are affected due to the severe heat for example in the U.S the 1000 people average are died due to the extreme or temperature the inhabitants of heat islands also suffer due to the extreme heat.

Because in heat islands the temperature of the night are also extreme as compare to the rural areas the extreme heat also escort some cramps for example heat stroke, heat cramps, heat exhaustion during the heatstroke the respiratory disturbance, immobility, or decreased responsiveness heat exposure also causes due to the extreme heat and due to the heat exposure the death is also occur

Control of urban heat islands

The hazards of the heat islands are controlled by the different methods some methods discussed are as under

  1. Use of light-colored concrete and white roofs:

The light color reflects the sunlight as compared to the dark light so for the construction of roofs the light color concrete should be used so by this, the sunlight rays are reflected and the heat islands are reduced 

  1. Green roofs and vegetation cover:

The green plants play a vital role to reduce the urban heat islands the green roofs are the cover vegetation cool the surrounding environment by the process of the transpiration or the evaporation so due to these processes the water vapors are occurred in the wind and the air cool down and the heat islands should be reduced the plants are also cool the air by absorbing the Co2 Green Roof

  1. Planting trees in urban cities:

Planting trees in the cities also decreased the urban heat islands because the plants are produced the fresh air by absorbing the Co2 it should also release the oxygen and produce the cooling effects the deciduous plants are more important because it causes cooling during the summer seasons and didn’t block the warm air during the winter

  1. Implementation and sensitization of heat reduction policies and rules

The rules are followed by the state to clean air use the renewable sources and also less use the things which are responsible for the emission of the greenhouse gases and by this the reduction in the global warming and the urban heat islands are reduced aware of the people for the hazards of the urban heat islands and also aware the people for the benefits of the Green belts and the eco-roofing


Tropical rain forests | Neutralizer going toward extension

Tropical rainforest
Tropical rainforest

The forests play an important role in nature and also in the economic status of a country. The deforestation is continued about thousands of years ago. So their loss is the actual loss of the biodiversity of this planet. So we should avoid the process of the deforestation of the forests.

The tropical rain forests are those which are present on the high altitudes and have a specific biodiversity and nature. The forests cover about 30 percent of the earth’s crusts and helpful in maintaining the ecological balance. Let us discuss in detail their continual deforestation.

Explanation about Tropical rainforest

The forests are important for the humans and the biodiversity of the earth. These play an important role in the conservation of biodiversity. But the rate of deforestation is very high now a day. The land is used for cattle and for agricultural purposes.

The tropical rain forests are present in the entire world and scientists consider that this conserver a very large number of the biodiversity because the majority of the animals and plants are present in them.  

The forest of the Amazon is present in American and the South American region. This provides the earth about 40 percent oxygen. The Amazon forests have a variety of the animals and plants which are not discovered yet.

The Amazon forest is so vast that only 10 percent of it is discovered by the scientists and the other survivalist and it considers that about 45 laky or above tribes are present in the Amazon. This is also a tropical rain forest and its present in the 9 countries. These tropical rain forests are important to maintain the ecological balance maintaining.

Destruction of tropical rain forests

The tropical rain forests are destructed to get their land. As we know that the Amazon is 20 percent destruct due to the human activities and its destruction rate is increasing at an alarming rate. These forests are a great source of the oxygen and the also converter of carbon and other poisonous gases into renewable sources and also for the plants’ products.

The peoples who live in the Congo and near the Amazon are causing a huge loss to these forests because these divest the forests for the land and also for their domestic animals and causing serious harm to the biodiversity of these forests which cannot be reversed at any cost. With the beginning of the 20th century the destruction rate Is very high.

It is estimated that after 200 hundred years the tropical rain forests will be completely disappeared from the earth due to human activities and this is done to get the palm oil or forgetting the rubber from the different trees. These have a very dense and bad effect on the trees and biodiversity and also on the tropical rain forests.

It is considered that the tropical rain forests are responsible for climate change and also for the raining thousand kilometers away from their place. Because the weather system also relays on the tropical rain forests as it’s a goes circle of the rain and other resources.

The other causes of the tropical rain forests’ destruction are that a huge no of the medical drugs are obtained from these forests so that this is also a reason for their destruction. Many human antibiotics of human interest are obtained from the rainforest.

The pharmaceutical industry is a huge industry of this leading world and it also involves nature imblanancing by getting the human interest of drugs from the tropical rain forests.

Tropical rainforest biome

It’s a billion industry. The other cause of the tropical rain forests loss is that. The peoples living in Africa use the thousand years old methods of medicines for treating their own health issues using the herbal and medical sciences. Hence the lack of the necessary food for the animals means a rapid change into the environmental situation and also responsible to harm for the other biodiversity.

Tropical rainforest climate

As it’s increasing the carbon level in the air and decreasing the oxygen level. We know that if the carbon level increases into the air mean it increases global warming and a severe environmental change from the world by increasing the temperature of the world.

Mostly the human activities are involved in this so that the tropical rain forests are divesting at a large number in the world. And their destruction rate is increasing day by day at an alarming rate. The agricultural and industrial usage of the wild species is responsible for this whole situation.

Effects of tropical rain forests loss

The tropical rain forests are very important for this planet of the earth as these maintain an ecological balance equal. If their current rate of the destruction or deforestation continues then soon after some decades global warming will be a great issue for the world and many of the biodiversity will be lost from the human hands.

And also many of the animals will be extinct. And countries like Japan and New Zealand and others which are located on the islands will be destructed due to the increase in the sea level water.

Global warming due accumulation of the gases increase the temp hence when the temp will be higher than the ice will melts rapidly from the glaciers consequently, the new situation will be developed for the entire world and many of the countries will be extinct due to the tornado in the sea and other tycoons.

Not only the humans but also the animals that live in the tropical rain forests will die due to their habitat loss. Hence we can say that tropical rain forests loss is a global issue nowadays and it needs to address an immediate response for the better future of the human and also for the other living organisms of this earth.

Recent studies show that the rain forest is cut down a very rapid rate of about 5 percent per year due to human activates.

All this is done due to the agriculture use and for the urbanization and also for the industrious purposes so that to obtain a better human life but the future generation of the humans will suffer from a very bad situation due to the current harm of the disforestation of the tropical rain forests. It also affects the water cycle.

So we can say that the effects of the tropical rain forest on this planet are very west and these can affect a very large no of the biotic and the biotic species. The green house effects as we mentioned above is also increasing due to the deforestation of the tropical rain forests of the South America and the African region.

A majority of the animal species are suffering the extinction threat due to their habitat loss due to human activities.

Measures to save the tropical rain forests

The tropical rain forest can be saved from human by the stop of their commercial and industrial usage and also by making the law to stop the use of the land of the forests so that by taking these steps we can overcome to stop the disforestation and to save our nature and our biodiversity.

These all will be done to help to secure nature. Every year a lot of lands is obtained from the tropical rain forests which should be immediately stopped by making the laws to protect the future of mankind and also for the humans of the future world.

Thermal Pollution | Rise of temperature is pollution

Thermal Pollution
Thermal Pollution

Thermal pollution is a debasement of water character by any procedure which alters the complete temperature of the water in a specific area.  A reason for this Pollution is the utilization of water as a fluid agent ( gas or liquid) by the ability of plants and for industrial work.  

When the water used as a fluid agent it is coming back to innate environment with huge temperature.  It also lows the provision of oxygen.  It is also disturbs the system formed by the interaction of community of organisms with their physical environment and its constitution.

Ecological Effects of Thermal Pollution 

Warm Water

When temperature is raised then it lowers the oxygen level to a liquid form of water as in raging liquid solubility of gases is lower.  It can destroy the animals that live in water which may be aquatic organisms.  This may also increase the level of organisms or animals related to metabolism.

For example for protein like enzymes, consequently, these organisms get more food in lower time if the ecosystem is not altered. 

It may disturb the chain of food. If the temperature is raised then it confined the lowering of oxygen into trench water, continuously to a condition in which organisms living in the absence of oxygen. It can raise the production of bacteria when food production is plentiful.

Only some degree changes such as a change in Celcius in temperature can alter the metabolism of the organism .

Cold Water

Production of artificially cold water from artificial lakes can alter the fish and small spineless organisms of rivers and lower the production of the river. The temperature of many rivers was hot in Australia, due to which aboriginal species of fish have been finished and small spineless organisms have been changed.

It may be attenuated by making a dam to produce hotter water surface inted the surface of cold water. 

Thermal Shock

When primary plant ability is outdoor or close for reparation of other reason fish and other microorganisms altered to specific temperature scope may be destroyed by changing the temperature of the water . It may be high or low,  it is called thermal shock.

Sources and controls of thermal pollution

Industrial wastewater

By using power plants in America 75 to 82% of this Pollution is produced.  The major sources of this production are industries including pulp, paper, petroleum, chemical and steel mills.

  It can be controlled in 3 ways

1)    Chilling of ponds

2)    Tower chill

3)    Co-production    

Sometimes the OTS system can be also used,  it does not low the temperature. 

Urban runoff

In hot season this can have an important thermal effect on small streams because ramp water can flow over places or location plentifully on the roads or on the side of the road or place for walking.

Dry land water and percolation drainage can also lower the thermal effects.


water storm | A big effect due to cleaning forest

storm water
storm water

The storm is the part of the ecosystem of this planet these basically originate due to the melting of the ice caps and the also due to the high amount of the snow which is present on the surface of the high areas of the hills and also the heavy rainfall causes the water storm. 

This whole process is quick nowadays due to the high process of human growth activates and also due to the global warming issues of the earth and due to the accumulation of the gases on the earth.

This stormwater is usually evaporated and flows into other biological cycles. Let us discuss the effects of stormwater and its effects on the biological life cycle in detail.

Explanation about water storm

The storm water issue is very ancient to human history when the civilization process starts then the process of urbanization and cleaning the forests lands for domestic uses starts at a very high level. The storm water is a larger issue since the bronze age of human history. The storms are a part of our life and ecosystems. 

When the ice caps of the puller regions melts then the water surface of the sea and the other freshwater flowing bodies rises in an abnormal way from their natural way its called the storm. The stormwater is useful as it fills the groundwater reservoir and provides the landscape a way to provide a better way of water. 

But the storm is not useful for the urban areas where no natural reservoir is present and it is a huge cause of the loss in those areas. Because due to the human activities and urbanization the stormwater is not soaked hence it causes a huge loss to the urban areas.

In urban areas parking buildings and other human buildings like houses and offices and factories are present which have paved surface and consequently the earth’s surface is covered with the concrete surface so this is not able to absorb the stormwater naturally due to human activities.

The stormwater is also caused the pollution because when it accumulates into the underground water it contains a large number of pesticides and other pollutants which are a latter mix up with the underground water.

Pollution due to stormwater

When the stormwater flows into the city land it’s not absorbed on the surface of the earth instead it flows through the water drainage and inlets and latter it flows into a natural fresh body and mix up with the marine water as the water cycle do. 

But we know that it carries a huge amount of the human wastes products and also causes the soil erosion of the land because of the stormwater is not provided a large surface then it will flow quickly on the paved land but when it passes with speed on a smooth land which is not paved then it will cause soil erosion to the natural land and consequently the soil fertility decreases.

The stormwater contains a lot of grace metal pigments and also the other pollutants which are produced due to human activities. The stormwater then flows in a natural body and finally falls in the sea. It is estimated that the bay of Mexico receives a large quantity of pollution due to the stormwater and hence its creating trouble for the natural water ecosystem.

The stormwater when runs on a bare land cause a huge amount of the loss to the fertility of this land which is irreversible. 

In the developed countries the stormwater management societies are present when this water flows from the inlets then a barrier is present on the water passage when water flows from it act as a filter.

After the stormwater passes from it then the waste remains on the surface of the land which is collected and later dumped on a fletch depot or a wastages site. The stormwater is handled on modern manners to reduce the losses from it and also to stop the other hazards which are present to our natural ecosystem

Stormwater drainage system

The stormwater system should be installed in a way that it can filter the wastages the pet waste oils and also the other metals that flow with the water when it runs off in a natural body. A barrier should be present on the last corner which acts as a filter to stop the wastages. 

In many developed countries, the stormwater is collected into the underground lands which are later then used in many useful ways. Many of the small pounds are built which act as a reservoir and also to store a quantity of water which is later used for domestic purposes.

This is useful to stop the erosion of soil fertility and also reduces the chances of urban flooding when the heavy rainfall happens. The underground water system should be properly managed to stop urban flooding. The stormwater is if handled in a proper way then it can be used for domestic purposes. 

And its also helpful for our environment and also for the ecosystem of our land. In the united states of America when the sample of the stormwater is taken then it is observed that a large no of the chemicals was present in it which generally flows through it to the natural freshwater ecosystem and also towards therein water and pollutes it in a very large scale. 

The stormwater system should be installed in a proper so that it should be able to filter the water in a proper or to stop the wastes that usually mix up into the water and causes the water polluted. So that in future we can maintain the fertility of the agricultural land.

Benefits of stormwater

The stormwater although causes a large amount of the destruction to humans and other natural freshwater bodies and ecosystems. But it is somehow beneficial that its helpful to clean the human waste and debris and to help to clean our environment if it is managed in a proper way.

After a storm, a large number of toxic pollutants are carried from the land. But it’s only beneficial for humans not for the other animals and organisms. This is the only benefit that we acquire from the stormwater.


Space debris | Humans creating pollution in space

Space debris
Space debris

Any anthropogenic particle, which is no more useable in orbit of the globe, is called Space debris or space waste or space trash. It may be part of any object or whole space ship or tool of an object lost during the mission. The size of Space trash varies, it may be a minute or maybe Microscopic or large like a spacecraft. The Space junk found about 160km to 36000km above the earth.

How space debris cause harm

Space waste is something which is Anthropogenic material which is no more useable present in the space or orbit, speed of waste objects in space is about 7.5km/s as they highly speed able so, when these particles are strike with other objects so they cause damage in them.

The information source of space junk?

The information source of space trash given by space care network of US (United States), they chase, connect and record those objects which are larger than 5 to 10 cm on the earth’s surface.

Who contributing Space waste or Space junk

Mostly Space junk is generated by the Breakdown, blast or Crashing of craft. The largest source of space junk is Fragmented debris.

There are three countries now a day which is liable for the 95% fragmented debris around the earth. These are China 42%, US 27.6% and Russia 25.6%. It was the year 1960 when some spacecraft break down by the self-slaughter method. After that, there are two skunk incident occur which increase the amount of space garbage or debris in the space

First one on 11 January 2007 the Chinese breakdown the satellite Fengyun 1C by the missile from the earth. (Fengyun 1C defected weather satellite)

The second one was a big collide of two satellites on 10 February 2009, which was in northern Siberia side about 800km above, one satellite was Iridium 33 and the other was cosmos 2251. Both satellites clash with each other at speed of more than 40000 km has a result of both satellites completely destructed in pieces. Iridium 33 was a communicating satellite of the United States and Cosmos 2251 was a Russian satellite. These two accidents create lots of population of space waste

Types of space waste or junk

There are following types of space waste or junk or debris.

Expired spacecraft, as some satellites are completed their life span so these become as Expire satellites, A lifetime of most satellites is 15 years due to hard environmental radiation in space.

Spent rocket bodies used to dispatch satellites in to orbit.

Particles discharged amid missions, for example, squander vented from the Space Shuttle

Little parts brought about by crashes, blasts or then again decay of dynamic satellites or bigger pieces of flotsam and jetsam

How can space debris harmful?

There are presently approximately 300,000 bits of the room flotsam and jetsam sufficiently huge to totally decimate working satellites upon impact.US Space Surveillance System (SSN) has arranged the space garbage based on their size and effect.

1: The principal classification incorporates objects that are around 10 cm in width and bigger, which can be followed by SSN and are recorded in an inhabitant space object inventory. An effect from an article, of this size, is what might be compared to a bomb exploding inside the shuttle.

Since flotsam and jetsam objects of this size can be followed, conjunctions with different bodies can be anticipated, and now and again, and at-risk, the satellite can be moved to stay away from a crash.

The SSN can frequently follow flotsam and jetsam littler than 10 cm, yet that relies upon the shape and creation of the object, consider working together with the span of the flotsam and jetsam. As far as possible for the solid following of an item is somewhere close to 5 and 10 cm. There are as of now in excess of 22,000 items being followed by the SSN.

2: The following class of room flotsam and jetsam is objected littler than 10 cm, down to 1 cm. An effect from a 5 cm object amidst the range is what could be compared to being hit by a transport going at thruway speed.

Trash protests in this range can’t be followed however are substantial enough to annihilate a satellite or rocket body if the trash slam into the principle body of the shuttle (impacts with sun-powered clusters, blasts and radio wires may not totally annihilate a satellite).

3: The last class of space garbage includes objects that are littler than 3 mm. An effect of an mm aluminum molecule is likeness being hit by a baseball tossed by a noteworthy association pitcher.

These little particles cause limited harm, especially in designs where the surface state of the affected rocket is critical to its capacities, such as sunlight based clusters and optical frameworks (telescopes, star trackers, cameras, and so forth).

Some shuttle parts can be protected to keep harm from flotsam and jetsam of this measure, yet not every one of them. There are an expected 10 million space flotsam and jetsam protests in LEO that are littler than 3 mm. They are as yet a hazard to space-based resources, however, one that can regularly be viably managed through better plans and protecting.

Pollution as gases and particles is made in the fumes mists framed when second arrange rockets are utilized to support a payload from LEO into GEO.

A solitary strong rocket engine can put billions of particles of aluminum oxide into space, making mists that may wait as long as about fourteen days after the rocket is terminated, before scattering and returning the environment. The particles, accordingly, speak to a noteworthy risk of surface disintegration and defilement to spacecraft that period.

How to clean space debris /waste

There are following two methods by which space waste can be managed

  1. Preventive measurements
  2. Removal procedure

Preventive measurements for space debris /waste

The best close term measures are to structure also, work launch vehicles and spacecraft so they have the least potential for detonating or separating. For instance, launch vehicle upper stages ought to be drained of fuels and pressurant after they have finished their central goal.

Batteries ought to incorporate electrical security circuits to block battery blasts coming about because of electrical shorts.

Such measures diminish or dispense with the potential for compound blasts and lessen the seriousness of impacts when they happen in light of the fact that they likewise expel extra vitality put away in the item.

Since 1981, NASA has worked its upper stages in a way that forcefully decreases the probability that they would detonate in space. Japan and ESA have as of late received comparative operational techniques.

Expenses of these methodology change depending specifically on the plan of upper stages and rocket, however, can be estimated in terms of the identical load of the rocket that would be offered up to incorporate such measures or the costs required to diminish the dry load of a shuttle.

Other preventive measures incorporate structuring and building rocket so they oppose ecological corruption from nuclear oxygen and sun based radiation furthermore, contriving shuttle and upper stage partition methods that limit the spread of operational garbage.

Deserting the act of purposely dividing latent satellites in circles where climatic drag is incredibly frail and flotsam and jetsam life correspondingly long would contribute especially to diminishing age of future orbital flotsam and jetsam. In low circles barometrical drag makes objects fall into the climate and consume or fall to the surface after some time sizes of a couple of months to a year.

However, very little, drag powers as out of sight 500 to 600 km may constrain space questions down overtime of a couple a long time. Abnormal amounts of sun oriented action cause the development of Earth’s upper environment, prompting expanded barometrical drag and huge decreases in the flotsam and jetsam populace in LEO.

The reentry of the Solar Greatest logical satellite on 2 December 1989 exhibited this marvel. The present cycle of expanded sun based movement, which has been particularly solid, cut it down much sooner than anticipated.

The barometrical drag experienced at these elevations has been utilized in numerous events to evacuate upper stages and different articles that have finished their missions. For instance, the Delta 180 analysis directed for the Strategic Defense Initiative little articles conveyed as a major aspect of the test would be expelled from the circle inside a couple of days.

With the overhaul of the upper stages, it would be conceivable to put upper stages in curved circles that carry them into the upper compasses of the air at perigee, making them fall back to Earth moderately rapidly Association was done in a low circle such a large number of little articles conveyed as a major aspect of the test would be expelled from circle inside a couple of days.

Soil pollution | Enemy of natural beauty

soil pollution
soil pollution

The degradation of soil by human beings, chemicals, and other change in the natural soil is called soil contamination or soil pollution

 It is mainly caused by improper disposal of waste products, agricultural chemicals, and industries waste products. Some solvents, pesticide lead, and other metals like heavy metals.

Soil pollution has its effects on the whole planet and it will play a major part in the welfare of the upcoming generation. We can implement measures to reduce pollution. If we do nothing it allows pollution to increase with the passage of time and cause health epidemics. The human population is predicted to rise by two billion in the next 40 years.

Due to feed the population it is the extreme desire that soil remains intact. The will not be able to support the whole population if measures to reduce pollution are not introduced. Then a number of diseases will cause resorting to synthetic food sources.

Causes of Soil Pollution

One of the more commonly ignored problems of our daily happenings is soil pollution. Soil pollution is not easily observable like Air pollution, water pollution, and noise pollution. We can see smoke, hear noise and smell stagnant water but it is hard to observe soil pollution.

1):-Soil pollution, which is also known as soil contamination, is caused by artificial, damage in substances searching the earth and causing a decline

2):- There are many well-being hazards related to soil pollution, via straight interaction with the soil or from air pollutants.

3):-In industrialized countries in which soil pollution has guidelines, or in unindustrialized countries with no proper measures, the soil pollution is the main issue. Knowing the causes and the potential solutions can help to mitigate some of the risks.

4):-soil pollution is caused by pesticides that are used to kill the pests.

5):-soil contamination takes place by using herbicides.

6):-Oil spills    

7):-Mining and activities that are caused by heavy metal industries.

8):-Nuclear waste product also causes soil contamination.

9):-Acid rain also causes soil contamination.

10):-Corrosion of underground storage tanks also causes is soil contamination. Intensive farming is farming in which land is used whole the year due to this soil nutrients decreased.

The use of agrochemicals like pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. Landfill and illegal dumping also cause soil contamination. Industrial waste is direct discharge to the soil cause soil contamination.

Agriculture and soil pollution

The use of fungicides and herbicides for agriculture is at a record level. These chemicals are artificial and cannot be broken down naturally. These chemicals and fertilizers seep out to the soil and affect the fertility of the soil. If plants absorb these fertilizers they will die off.

Industry and soil pollution

The industrial usage is the most important offender of soil pollution. Many precautions and laws are made but due to industrial waste and improper disposal, pollution is causing destruction of soil day by day. Mining is also a source of soil pollution.

Human Activities and soil pollution:-

Human being plays a major role in soil pollution. Our daily activities are producing domestic wastes, erosion of soil, absorbing soil nutrients and disturbing the soil. Human waste like used shopping bags and wrappers are also causing soil pollution


An indirect effect on soil pollution is Deforestation. The exposed soil is easily destructed when trees are cut down. The land is unable to support vegetation when soil is affected through erosion.

Acid Rain

Acid rain happens when contaminants in the air like nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide blend with rain. It has been confirmed to harmfully affect soil by liquefying vital nutrients and even altering the structure of the soil.

Effects of Soil Pollution

There are many effects of soil pollution. The most extreme effect is that natural life on land may become unmanageable in the damaged soil. Animal and human life will be impossible and plants would not grow. Except for the death soil pollution has many other significances. Some are given below:

          1):-Increase of human health hazards from interaction with contaminated soil or water.

          2):-Environmental change primes to a disturbance in biomes that causes damage to the assured animal species.

           3):- the Reduced richness of soil and profit leads to loss of minerals and progress in diseases.

          4):-Except all rules and regulations the soil is eroding day by day thus specific remedies are needed.

Remedies of Soil Pollution

Use of fewer pesticides

The use of pesticides and other chemicals should be avoided to protect the soil and its nutrients for the benefit of plants as well as human beings.


Use the products which are re-usable like paper, plastics, and aluminum glass products. Also, develop the habit of less using products that are not recyclable. Containers can be reused rather than throwing in dust bins.


Reforestation is a good practice to reduce pollution. Except for all the advantages where the new trees are cultivated here the old and invaluable trees are cut down which leads to erosion of soil and cause soil pollution.


Bioremediation is a process in which the microorganism is introduced into the soil to increase the fertility of the soil. In this process, the natural nutrients of the soil can be decomposed and reused by plants. It is an environmentally friendly process.

Soil separation technique

Soil separation technique is a process in which the soil particles are separated out to protect the soil layers and the microorganism. The floating matter, clear water, clay, silt and sand are separated out to prevent soil erosion.

Soil is the most important part of life. It is necessary to protect soil for the benefit of plants, animals and human beings.  

Strategies for remediation of soil

Different technologies are used for remediation

Soil should be excavated and put it to disposal site away from human and sensitive environment or soil should be aerated at a contaminated site.

By using the process of bioremediation, the process in which microorganism is used which digest certain organic molecules.

Phytoremediation is a technique in which the plants are used to remove the heavy metal.

Mycoremediation is a technique in which the fungus is used to remove heavy metals.

Using the electrometrical system to extract groundwater or soil vapor.

Soil erosion | Disintegration of necessary soil

Soil Erosion
Soil Erosion

The process in which the disintegration of soil takes place is called soil erosion. Our earth is divided into different spheres like hydrosphere, xerosphere etc. some parts of soil are completely covered with ice, these are called glaciers. Disintegration takes place in all these regions of soil. 

Types of Soil Erosion

There are different physical things which cause soil erosion.

Rainfall and surface runoff

The water of rainfall carries soil particles from the earth crust with it. Thus soil particles flow with water. There are different types of surface runoff.

Rivers and streams:

The movement of water in hilly areas is upward or lower ward. There is a continuous flow of water is rivers and streams so, this movement of water causes erosion. The water from higher to lower position makes the soil intense and on the other case.

When water causes erosion in upward, increase the areas into slope or pile. The primary step in this type of erosion is upright motion of soil. The secondary or second phase make valley-wide and makes a low water flowing site. Thus sedimentation starts and erosion takes place. In this case, movement or flowing of water is directly proportional to sedimentation.


Very quick flow of water is called flood. Floods are a very common cause of soil erosion floodwater takes a huge of the mass of soil pile gradients with it. The faster flowing or running water of flood can also carry rocky or hilly places.


The moving air is called wind. Wind cannot be negligible in erosion point of view. The wind is a real cause of soil integration, escaping of water from the surface of the soil, uprooting of plants, contamination of the atmosphere and damaging the crops wind carry soil particles away, form the surface of Earth. Wind causes the deficiency of minerals in the soil. Wind affects greatly in desert regions.

Factors affecting soil erosion


Rainfall is a very important factor regarding soil erosion with the H2O. The quantity of water of rainfall is noticeable as a concern of disintegration point of view. The quick rainfall in barren land causes much destruction.

Temperature also plays a significant role because it impacts on plants and property of land. The speed of droplets of water of rainfall is a key thing. The effect of high-speed drops is greater than low-speed drops.

Soil structure and composition

The arrangement and constituent of the soil are vital things in the description of the erosion of soil by rainy water. The floor of soil which has a high content of silicates of aluminium contend to erosions effect on the other hand the soil with a lower amount of clay does not oppose the erosion at a high percentage. The land has a higher value of minerals contend more to disintegration.

Water holding capacity is very vital. The land which has a higher content of H2O more will be erosion. Wetlands are affected harshly by land erosion.

Plant covering

The areas which are highly vegetated resistant to erosion plants opposed the wind, thus stunned the disintegration of the land. Vegetation make a compact pellet inland by their bases cutting of trees faster the degree of erosions.

Topography of land

The hilly areas are more affected because of the force of gravitation. The degree of erosion in plains is lower than that of rocky hills.

Anthropogenic activities and soil erosion

Uses of land for agriculture.

Vegetation is destructed due to agriculture purposes Heavy and advanced machinery is used nowadays for cultivation. The process of ploughing gives space to water for erosion. The extensive use of chemicals makes eliminate all soil living creatures.

The land is make irrigated, which lost its binding structure. The loss of many important minerals like P will rank the integration. Ploughing changes the land into many tiny fine fragments. Which could have been picked by the action of air. The increase of barren land provides the wind more space to run at faster rates. These all things promotes the disintegration of land.


Cleaning or cutting of forest for various purposes is called deforestation. The forest has a rich content of nutrients. There are different layers of the plant covering from soil to peaks of vegetation.

The leaves of plants from the cover of land. These leaves are rich in organic materials. Thus piles of leaves gather over the surface of land, in this way underneath the base of land.

This layer holds the droplets of water. These droplets seep slowly down the layer and then top the soil. In this way covering is protected from the flow of. The vegetation layering slows down the speed of droplets. The base layer makes safe land from the erosion. The upper cover of plants also reduces the intensity of rainfall.

When forests are cleared disintegration increases. The base layer of leaves became out of the pictures. There will be no plants, which fallen leaves to from base covering. In these circumstances, disintegration starts.

Roads and urbanization

Spreading of urban areas affects on disintegration, of land. The main and vital harm of this process is that the base layering of soil has washed. Lowering the seeps of H2O. The other harsh is that by occupying the land and farming paved buildings, faster the velocity of the air and thus cause disintegration.

Climate change

The temperature of earth is increasing gradually, and warming of a blanket of air around the soil. This change in temperature stimulates the water cycle and increases the precipitation. The increasing rate of precipitation will increase the erosions rate.


Agriculture and industries cause pollution in aquatic conditions. These are the major source of contamination of water. This contamination increases the diffusion of water into the soil. The solid matter in the floor of soil flow. These solid masses of matter are called sediments.

Thus these masses also work as contaminators. So when flowing or moving with water carries much other toxic material with it.

Airborne dust pollution

Fast-moving air takes up land grains and carries them into the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, these particles are mixed with hazardous materials. Thus air becomes polluted. This reduces the precipitation and alters the basic coloration of the upper atmosphere of the earth. As a result redness of sun is increased.

Prevention and remediation of soil erosion

The best way to prevent the disintegration of soil is to grow more and more plants. vegetation rapidly cover the base of land with the leaves. Thus will reduce air and water disintegration of soil.