Indoor air quality | Bad indoor air condition

The condition is related to the quality of air around and within the structures and buildings. It is very closely related to the health and the console of the building visitor. This condition is known as indoor air quality. It can represent the pollutant concentration and the thermal condition that can badly affect the accomplishment and health of the occupants.

When we work and live and breathe the air. It can circulate throughout the closed area. It can also refer to the nature of the quality of the heat or cool. Poor indoor air quality can be an expressive he4alth and economical and environmental problems and has an indebtedness or drawbacks for building managers and employers.

The health and the wellbeing of humans are affected by the totality of attributes of the indoor air quality.

Personal costs of any business can also affect by indoor air quality since the research findings show the connection with the productivity of occupants. It can also determine the thermal and respiratory demands of occupants. Indoor air quality prevents unhealthy aggregation of pollutants and concedes the feelings of wellbeing.

Source control, ventilation to dilute contaminants, and filtration. Carpets and the area rugs are the residential units that can further improve the indoor air quality. Indoor air quality can be affected by particulates, mold, bacteria, and gasses such as carbon mono oxide, organic compound, and radon.

Common pollutants of indoor air quality

  1. Tobacco smoke

Tobacco smokes affect the other peoples other than the active smoker. Tobacco smoke is also called second-hand smoke that can include particulate and gaseous phases. The methods which can improve the indoor air quality are regarded as the second-hand smoke is the appliances of smoke-free laws.

  1. Radon

The radioactive atomic gas that forms from the radioactive decay of radium. It is an invisible radon that may be found in a rock formation in certain building materials.

This is the most serious risk of indoor air quality. Each year thousands of deaths from lung cancer are responsible for indoor air quality.

  1. Carbon monoxide

The colorless and odorless gas which is formed by the incomplete combustor of fossil fuels is known as carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is one of the most deeply toxic indoor air pollutants.

Tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust, and the heating furnace is a common source of carbon monoxide. Death, nausea, and unconsciousness occur due to the high level of Co. The attributes of indoor air quality include the:-

i) Humidity

ii) Level of pollutants

iii) Odors

iv) The temperature of the air

v) The velocity of the air. 

Effects of indoor air quality

i). Difficulty in concentrating

ii). Eye, nose, and throat irritation

Iv) Dizziness

V). Coughing and sneezing

Vi) Sinus congestion

VII). Headaches

VIII) Allergies

IX) Fatigue

Sick building syndrome

          The following symptoms of sick building syndrome are.

  1. Throat, eyes and nose irritation.
  2. Allergies.
  3. Headache
  4. After the person leaves building symptoms will often lessen.
  5. Diseases continue for more than two weeks.
  6. No medically diagnosable symptoms.
  7. Asthma, legionnaires, hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
  8. There is no medically diagnosable symptom.

Why is there an increase in indoor air quality?

  1. In buildings more chemical pollutants are present.
  2. Delayed maintenance.
  3. More time indoors.
  4. Reduced ventilation and firm buildings.

Potential causes

  1. Personal and organizational factor.
  2. Ventilation system.
  3. Micro Organism.
  4. Ventilation rate.
  5. Humidity.
  6. Airborne chemical pollution.
  7. Lighting
  8. Temperature.

Relationship of indoor air quality to productivity

  1. Sick leave.
  2. Worth of investigation occupants discontents
  3. Worth’s for care health.
  4. Lighting quality and thermal comfort.
  5. Reduced performance at work caused by unfavorable health.

Indoor air quality

Building ventilation

The purpose of building ventilation is to remove the air borne contaminants. They can supply a mixture of outside air and the re-circulated air.

Components of building ventilation.

I)Exhaust vents.

II)Air intake, filters, dampers.

III) Plenum.

IV)Supply vents.

V)Cooling units and heating units.

VI)Coils and drain pans.

Fundamentals of good indoor air quality

 Indoor air quality has different fundamental elements. It includes

  1. Humidity management.
  2. Source control of contaminants.
  3. Adequate filtration.
  4. Proper ventilation.

Unacceptable indoor air quality can pitch in the un-controlled moisture in the buildings. The occupants can damage the structure and the provision of the building.

The growth of some form of mold and fungi can be increased when the level of humidity is 70 percent.

Respiratory vexation can occur when the level of humidity is less than 30 percent.

Water vapor is the one source of building moisture that holds the indoor air quality.

When the level of humidity is high then they can support the growth of pathogen causing microorganisms.

Adequate filtration

Filtration is one of the fundamental elements of indoor air quality. The process that controls the contaminants by lowering their concentration to their actual level.

Indoor sources

          There are several indoor sources.

The building uses a major source.

1)    Science laboratory.

2)    Pet store.

3)    Photocopy shop.

4)    Cafeteria.

5)    Dry cleaning.

6)    Medical office.

7)    Nail salon.

Tips for control

Exhaust hoods are used to check the air flows of hood. For the control of pressure and ventilation, the exhaust should be used.

Maintenance and housekeeping

  1. Wet mops
  2. Waxes and polishes.
  3. Cleanser
  4. Vacuuming
  5. Adhesives.
  6. Disinfectants
  7. Drain cleaner
  8. Air fresheners
  9. Pesticides
  10. Lubricants
  11. Solvents

Tips for controlling

  1. For storage spaces, we must bemuse exhaust ventilation.
  2. Must be avoiding sprays and aerosols.
  3. When mixing and diluting we can use proper protocol.
  4. We can use low emitting products.

Building related sources


  1. Transformers.         2). Asbestos. 3. Compressed wood 4. Carpets. 5. Insulation 6. Construction adhesives.  7. Wallcovering.

Tips for controlling

  1. Avoid back drafting
  2. Polluting activities perform during unoccupied hours.
  3. Clean the spills.
  4. Use the filter change protocol.
  5. For steam use the potable water.
  6. Maintain the spotless mechanical rooms.
  7. Clean the drain pans.

The vehicles include the underground.


  1. Maintain the garage under the negative pressure.
  2. Monitor the carbon monoxide.
  3. Use exhaust ventilation.
  4. Check the pattern of airflow.

Occupant related sources.

  1. Paper products.
  2. Tobacco products.
  3. Art supplies.
  4. Perfumes.
  5. Printers and copiers.
  6. Marking pens.


  1. Exhaust ventilation is used for local sources.
  2. Avoid the paper clutter.
  3. Education material is used for occupants and staff.
  4. Smoking policy.


                    It can include molds.


  1. Keep the building dry.
  2. Moisture and molds are controlled by protocol.

Reviewed by:
Dr. Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar (Ph.D.)
University of Sargodha, Sargodha

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