Stone cancer is a cancer of buildings and it is not a small rather it is a huge or big issue of the environment and due to this color of the buildings becomes yellowish and lesser the beauty of buildings. It al happen because of acid rains. The main thing is now present in the air is Sulphur dioxide gas and this gas affects badly to the buildings and painted surfaces. The best example of stone cancer is the Taj Mahal due to Sulphur dioxide its color becomes blackish.
History of stone cancer
Stone cancer, first of all, began in the European countries and after this, it started in North America after the great World war 2. It increased in those areas of the county where more air pollution was present. International teamwork statements that pollution of air and acid confession starts in 1972.
Then in 1974, conference is done in Geneva and in this conference a good work is done which is that authority is formed which is for the reducing of the air pollution.
The development which was started in 1995 also marked up the starting of the more emission or estimation of Sulphur dioxide in the cities of the united states and as a result, almost there is a 88 percent estimation or decline of the Sulphur dioxide from 1990 to the end of 2017 and onward.
Due to some strict work and meetings and strict actions which are explained already, there is a great decrease in the deposition of acid in countries of Europe and North America.
And there are also some other records about the concentration of the hydrogen in the United States and the data which is collected and when it is measured it shows that there is a decrease in the concentration of the hydrogen in rainfall was forty percent from 1994 to 2008.
The concentration of deposition of acid in the other countries of the whole world is also increased. There is an example of where great increase in the concentration of the Sulphur dioxide and the ammonium oxide and And the hotspot for said issue is two countries one China and other is India. Stone cancer | SpringerLink
Effects of acid rain on headstones
The effects of acid rain are very bad because it destroys or ruin the shrines and sculptures by shedding the material and its other effect is that it completely corrodes the materials which form buildings or structure of these buildings. Builders always select granite glass ball and other things which is related to this and they use these materials as some strong materials so that these materials fight back against the harmful elements.
But they completely surprise to see the reactions of chemicals between the acid rain and the materials of the buildings managed and they destroy over the time as its example is sugar is completely absorbed in the water. ijacv13n1_04.pdf (ripublication.com)
What are the basics of acid rain
To know the basics of the acid rain, chemist says that it is the change of pH of water basically. When PH of water become low due to some reasons water will be acidic. When some chemicals I.e., Sulphur dioxide
- If the pH of the water is equal to 7 then it is neutral.
- They said that in the areas in which industries are present their pH is run between 2 to 3.
- All these gases or molecules react with each other and they cause acid rain.
Abating of the buildings
One of the effects of acid rain on the buildings is that it completely damages the structures because the acid rain is completely dissolving in the stone and it completely corrodes the steel or metal which is wide-open to the weather.
In all of these materials, some of the materials have CaCo3 which is completely dissolved by acid rain.
Acid rain effects on the testimonials
Builders always select granite glass ball and other things which is related to this and they use these materials as some strong materials so that these materials fight back against the harmful elements. But they completely surprise to see the reactions of chemicals between the acid rain and the materials of the buildings managed and they are destroying over time as its example is sugar is completely absorbing in the water.
The main thing which is present in the air is the gas which is Sulphur dioxide and this gas affects badly to the buildings and surfaces who are painted and it causes yellowing. The best example of stone cancer is the Taj Mahal due to Sulphur dioxide its color becomes blackish.
One thing which is said in this is the old buildings and the old statues and the stones of the tomb they are completely helpless to the acid rain due to one reason which is that they all are made up of limestone and when these statues are exposed to the acid rain their details can be lost or the beauty of the statue can be lost when the time is passed and slowly they are completely turn into a dull dash.
However, it is asked that there are some statues that are made up of metals that refrain the stones on the buildings from physical weakening but it can cause discoloration or it may cause the color of the stone lost.
Acid rain not only effects the metallic parts of the shrines buildings and passages when they are exposed to mist there are some other metals other than calcium which are completely dissolved in the stones of the building rather it also corrodes many other certain types of metals and these are mostly Cu and nickel and many other types of the steel.
What are the effects of acid rain
The most common materials which are occurred and used for the buildings stonework are marble and granite. The rain corrodes all of these materials to some extent and it’s destroying their original composition of the buildings.
Acid rain damages the cement buildings which are present in some polluted countries like China, United States India. The copper is completely dissolved and it is washed down then it is oxidized and completely changed into green dyes.
Taj Mahal in India is affected by acid rain. It is a famous example of acid rain and its effects on the Taj Mahal.
In India, there are a lot of industries which are the main reason for acid rain and it completely change the color of the Taj Mahal and it turns its white color into yellow color.
- However, some of the arguments about this are that the yellow color is natural, or maybe the yellow color is due to the iron which is present in the marble.
- Some other native courts or residential have argued about this which is that the pollution of the air is the main reason for its color change and it destroys it completely.
- But the government of India has produced a strong fact about that which is that all of you should control the emissions and should help to protect the Taj Mahal. FA550QE.pdf (iiis.org)
Acid rain effects on the aquatic lives
Acid rain also affects and damages live in the water lakes and farms and cause ground water pollution.
Acid rain is completely destroying the soil and it causes very harmful effects on important nutrients in the soil.
- Acid rain also affects microorganisms.
- Acid rain also affects decomposers.
Plants are more affected by acid rain. When the acidic water seepage towards the roots of plants than at that time plants become very weak.
Acid rain also affects the lives of aquatic animals and plants which are present in the rivers lakes and in the seas because the acid rain when going the water then the fishes died and plants which are present in the rivers and the seas they become poisonous. Effects of Acid Rain – Surface Waters and Aquatic Animals | Acid Rain | Clean Air Markets | US EPA (alberta.ca)
Effect of acid precipitation on the marble
When in the polluted air Nitric acid and Sulphuric acid combine with the other calcite of the marble or shrines then the calcite is dissolved in it and when it is dissolved in it, as a result, the buildings look like very roughed and its material is completely removed and there is a complete loss of imprinted material. The surface of the stone in which material is present due to this is lost and rough spots are appeared.
Cement is also another thing that combines or reacts with the rain which is acid rain because cement has CaCo3 which is completely dissolved in the acid. Buildings which are made up of cement and work of art which are made up of cement also show the effects of the acid rain.
In the old buildings and the old statuettes and the stones of the tomb, they are completely helpless to the acid rain due to one reason which is that they all are made up of limestone and when these statues are exposed to the acid rain their details can be lost or the beauty of the statue can be lost when the time is passed and slowly they are completely turn into a dull dash. How does acid precipitation affect marble and limestone buildings? | U.S. Geological Survey (usgs.gov)
How Taj Mahal is affected by rain
Taj Mahal is present in the city of India which is Agra. The air which is present at that place has a dangerous level of Sulphur and the oxides of the nitrogen are biggest reason due to which Sulphur and oxides of the nitrogen is present here which is that in these areas there is a large number of the industries and power plants are present. All these industries emits a lot of Sulphur dioxide to air that is precursor of sulphuric acid that leads to acid rain damaged or destroy the marble of the Taj Mahal and due to which its structure is completely changed which is so much attracted by many visitors all over the world.
Why the color of the Taj Mahal becomes yellow?
The color of the Taj Mahal turns yellow because of the air pollution which is present in the Agra where the Taj Mahal is present and on the other hand there is another reason for its yellowing color which is that coal is burning here.
Why the Taj Mahal is losing its color
Taj Mahal is completely losing its color due to the feces of the insects, birds and the air pollution which is present at that place. Some of them said first of all its color turns into yellow and now it turns into brown and green color. Acid Rain Effect on The Taj Mahal: A Review | Ojha | International Journal of Green Chemistry (journalspub.info)
Research showed that ultraviolet (UV) rays are responsible for the bond brakeage of Sulfur dioxide (SO2). Similarly, these UV rays can destroy the ozone molecules. Excessive use of chlorofluorocarbon CFC can damage the Ozone layer and free passage will be available for UV rays that will change different beneficial chemical compounds in to harmful compounds. These can change Sulfur dioxide (SO2) to Sulfuric acid H2SO4 and sulphuric acid is enimy of marble. The best example is Tajmahal.