Noise pollution : A detailed note

What is Sound?

Sound is a vibration that propagates as a mechanical wave of pressure and displacement, through some medium (i.e. air or water). Sound refers to only those vibrations with frequencies that are within the range of hearing for humans.

What is Noise?

Noise is basically any unwanted. It is measured in dB units.

List of Characteristics of Noise

  • Sound pressure
  • Frequency
  • Duration
  • Time of the day
  • Location
  • Intermittency

What are Kinds of Noise?

  • Continuous
  • Variable or Intermittent
  • Impulse or Impact
  • Kinds of noise which affect analysis
  • Chemical Noise
  • Instrumental Noise

Instrumental Noise

  • Thermal Noise
  • Flicker Noise
  • Shot Noise
  • Environmental Noise

What is Noise Pollution

Noise pollution refers to a type of energy pollution in which distracting, irritating or damaging sounds are freely audible. In this type of pollution contaminants are not physical particles, but waves which interfere with the naturally occurring waves of a similar type in the same environment.

Sources of Noise Pollution

  • Household Sources
  • Social Events
  • Commercial and Industrial activities
  • Transportation

Household Sources

  • Food Mixer
  • Grinder
  • Vacuum Cleaner
  • Washing machine and Dryer
  • Air Conditioner  Cooler
  • TV
  • iPods and Earphones
  • Loud speaker

Social Events

  • Places of worship
  • Discos
  • Parties
  • Markets where people sell goods with loudspeaker.
  • When these events are not often, they can be termed as nuisance rather than noise pollution.

Commercial and Industrial Activities

  • Printing Presses
  • Manufacturing Industries
  • Construction Sites

Sources of Construction Noise

  • Pneumatic Hammers
  • Air Compressors
  • Bulldozers
  • Loaders
  • Dump Trucks
  • Pavement breakers

Sources of Industry Noise

  • Fans
  • Motors
  • Compressors mounted outside
  • This interior noise sources have significant impacts on industrial workers, among whom noise induced hearing loss is unfortunately common.


  • Road Traffic Noise
  • Aircraft Noise
  • Noise from Rail Roads

Causes of Noise Pollution

Natural causes of noise pollution

The environment is fill-up by different loud like shining towards cyclone volcanic eruption be earthquakes and slides loud created with some animals and immediate water falling.

Humans causes noise pollution

Fast driven industries. Urban living people manipulate by mean of new like transfer. Growth of population and fast creating a ate by human affairs in these few human tasks act upon and responsible for loud spreading there are many types of noise pollution but in which both kinds of infection impact sleeping hearing and speaking abilities physically and mentally healthy. A list is also given below

  • Poor Urban Planning
  • Sounds from Motor Vehicles
  • Sounds from Musical Instruments
  • Car Alarms
  • Office Equipment
  • Factory Machinery
  • Construction Work
  • Barking Animals
  • Appliances
  • Audio Instruments
  • Loud Speakers
  • Noise Created by People

Effects of Noise Pollution

  • Effects on Humans
  • Effects on Animals
  • Effects on Environment (Vegetation, property)

Effects on Humans

Uncontrolled sounds in the human ears in various duration maximum loud can ruptured the internal fragile part of ears.

Not only noise can produce touchiness displeasure and also accelerates the heartbeat by the flow of the blood increases in the veins and arteries. The continuous loud expansion the number of blood cholesterol increase.

Scientist and biologist suggest that the increasingly loud sound get exceed to the nonspecific feeling such as giddiness disorder damage of nervous system and problem or production of the blood pressure and problem of human vision increasing perspiration lack of energy.

Increasing noise pollution have been a vast effect on the functioning of humans.

The production of noise at a high level in 180 Decibel intensity shows the result of much human death.

Increasing sounds infection it becomes dangerous for low to the capacity of the digestive system.

It has a lot of huge impact on all age of human life children women’s and man because the huge amount of noise creates experience stillbirth 

For the life of animals effect of noise is the very harmful duration of the continuous loud on the low level. A list of Bad effects on humans are below.

  • Hearing Impairment
  • Interference with Spoken Communication
  • Decrease in Efficiency
  • Lack of Concentration
  • Fatigue
  • Sleep Disturbances
  • Cardiovascular Disturbances
  • Disturbance in Mental Health
  • Impaired Task Performance
  • Negative Social Behavior and Annoyance reactions
  • Abnormal Fetus
  • Temporary or permanent deafness

Diseases caused by noise pollution

Following list of disease may cause by noise pollution

  • High Blood Pressure
  • Heart Attack Cancer Asthma
  • Coughing, wheezing
  • Deafness Annoyance Stress Anxiety
  • Reduced lung development
  • Bronchitis
  • Insomnia
  • Arteriosus Sclerosis

Sound effects on Animals

Following list of bad effect on animals may cause by noise pollution

  • Damages Nervous system
  • Altering Prey/predator detection
  • Creates problems in Navigation
  • They become Dangerous and Attacking
  • Raise Metabolism
  • Reduction of useable Habitat
  • Death of Certain Species
  • Genetic and Evolutionary Problems
  • Hormone imbalance
  • Chronic Stress
  • Panic and Escape Behavior
  • Abandonment of Offspring
  • Injury
  • Loudness of Interspecies Communication

Sound effects on environment

Following list of bad effect on environment may cause by noise pollution

  • Breakage of Earth Barrier
  • Poor Quality of Crops
  • Damages Buildings, bridge sand Monuments
  • Weakens the Edifice of Building

Control of Noise Pollution

  • Control at Source
  • Control in the Transmission Path
  • Using Protective Equipment

Control at Source

  • Reducing the Noise Levels from sectors
  • Maintenance of Automobiles
  • Use of Economic instruments
  • Control over Vibrations
  • Low Voice Speaking
  • Prohibition on Usage of loudspeakers
  • Selection of Machinery
  • Maintenance of Machines

Control in Transmission path

  • Installation of Barriers
  • Installation of panels and enclosures
  • Green belt development

Using Protection Equipment

  • Job Rotation
  • Exposure Reduction
  • Hearing Protection
  • Protection at the Receiver End

More Noise Control Techniques

  • Sound insulation
  • Sound Absorption
  • Vibration Damping
  • Vibration Isolation
  • Urban Planning
  • Public Education and Awareness  [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]


To protect healthy life, there is urgent need to come up with enforceable law on Noise Pollution in each state.

Reviewed by:
Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ph.D. (PU)
Post Doctorate
American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA