How contaminated water cause health issues

What are Water born diseases?

The diseases caused by the dangerous microorganisms which are transported to the water and in this way, they are transmitted to the living bodies and cause disease in them is called water-borne diseases                

Explanation of water-borne diseases                         

These diseases are those which are caused by the microorganisms in those cases in which the microorganisms are transferred to the water and when this water is used by the living organisms, then it causes diseases called waterborne diseases.

It is caused by varieties of microbes, sometimes also biotoxins, and toxic contamination. All these cause dangerous diseases that even lead to death.

These waterborne diseases mostly occur in developing countries, where the water is unhygienic for use. As the world health organization estimated that approximately, 3.6% of the total disease in the world is the water-borne disease of the world is the waterborne disease and almost 1.5 million people die due to this problem each year.

WHO agency says that almost 58% of the diseases are caused by drinking unhygienic and unsafe water.

These diseases affect a lot of people or more than a hundred million each year, thus causing the death of people. It has been believed that water has a nature that transmits diseases, i.e., it is a natural vehicle for the transmission of diseases. [1]Microsoft Word – Module fm Waterborne Disease (cartercenter.org) [2]Microsoft PowerPoint – Module 9_Water & food-borne diseases.ppt [Read-Only] [Compatibility Mode] (who.int)

Characteristics of water-borne diseases                         

Water-borne diseases are the diseases that are caused by polluted water containing toxic contamination which when drunk by the living organism causes diseases. It creates severe problems like a diarrheal disease.

When a disease breaks out, then it can be transmitted through bathing washing or drinking water or food that is exposed to contaminated water.

The diseases are caused by microorganisms, like protozoans, bacteria, viruses, and also by flukes. 

The contaminated water cause diseases of the skin, ears, respiratory problems, digestive tract problems, eye infection, etc.

The treatment of these diseases is costly to poor people because they can not be managed by poor people due to their financial problems.  [3]https://dec.alaska.gov/media/11472/chapter-2-biological-characteristics.pdf [4]Water and Waterborne Diseases: A Review | International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health (journalijtdh.com)

Causes of water-borne diseases                          

There are many causes of diseases that are caused by polluted water.

Pathogens

Different types of pathogens are involved in water-borne diseases. These are given as follows

Protozoans

When protozoans come into contact with the water cause diseases of different types.

Its factor or causative agents are given as follows.

Acanthamoeba, Entamoeba histolitica

The diseases Acanthamoeba and Keratitis are caused by the protozoans.

These diseases cause eye pain, tearing from the eye, eye redness, sensitivity to light, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, bloating, and sometimes fever occurs.

Bacteria

There are many causative agents for the water-borne diseases of the bacteria, are Clostridium, Botulinum, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholera, E.coli, etc.

Botulisms, campylobacteriosis, cholera, E.coli infection, etc are diseases caused by bacteria, which cause illness.

Dry mouth, blurred and double vision, vomiting, diarrhea, high fever, nosebleed, and nausea. All these are the symptoms of the disease that are caused by drinking or any type of contact with the water.

Viruses

Coronavirus , Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis E virus, Norovirus, etc.

Severe or acute respiratory syndrome, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E, acute gastrointestinal illness.

Fever, myalgia, lethargy, gastrointestinal illness, cough, sore throat, abdominal pain, nausea, fatigue jaundice, hepatitis, joint pain, sometimes stomach pain, dark urine.

Algae

Its causative agent is Desmodesmus

The disease is also desmodesmus

It is similar to the given fungal infections.

Toxic materials

Sometimes when water comes in contact with toxic material, then it causes the water to become toxic. So when it comes to the use of humans, it causes severe diseases in them.

Contaminations

Some contaminations like excreta of the living organisms when coming into contact with water cause disease in them. It is called the water-borne disease of humans when they come in contact with the water. [5]https://www.health.state.mn.us/diseases/waterborne/basics.html [6]Polluted Water Borne Diseases: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Prevention (jmchemsci.com)

Transmission of water-borne diseases

Waterborne diseases are caused by drinking contaminated water, that has been contaminated by feces, urine, and other toxic chemicals of industries. This water is then transported to the public in that country that would get their water from rivers, lakes, and rains.

The water resources may also be contaminated by the contact of the infected animals that serve as biological pollutants and humans. runoff water that is contaminated landfills, sewer pipes, septic fields, and industries. This cause oral and other diseases.

The occurrence of water-borne diseases

It is not possible to count the number of diseases caused by water-borne diseases, but sometimes they are diagnosed. The use of contaminated water, swimming in contaminated water, or any type of use can lead to the occurrence of water-borne diseases.

Effects 

Waterborne diseases increase by the increases of flood by the extreme weather that causes flood and the lack of sewage treatment plants also cause diseases. Similarly, the lake of water causes pressure on agriculture, which causes crop failure and then causes starvation and lead to resource.

Waterborne diseases cause the death of organisms and illness of bodies.

Prevention of water-borne diseases

The following prevention measures should be taken, while the contamination affects the water.

  1. Clean the water so that it contains no germs.
  2. There should be proper sanitary conditions for the disposal of feces.
  3. There should be water treatment plants.
  4. The water should be irradiated with ultraviolet radiation.
  5. Oxidation with chemicals should be treated with chlorine dioxide or ozone or chlorine. [7]Prevention of Food and Water Borne Illness (gnb.ca) [8]fswaterborne.pdf (texas.gov)

Reviewed by:
Dr. Muhammad Tahir Ph.D. (PU)
Post Doctorate

American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA

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