The process in which the disintegration of soil takes place is called soil erosion. Our earth is divided into different spheres like hydrosphere, xerosphere etc. some parts of soil are completely covered with ice, these are called glaciers. Disintegration takes place in all these regions of soil.
Types of Soil Erosion
There are different physical things which cause soil erosion.
Rainfall and surface runoff
The water of rainfall carries soil particles from the earth crust with it. Thus soil particles flow with water. There are different types of surface runoff.
Rivers and streams:
The movement of water in hilly areas is upward or lower ward. There is a continuous flow of water is rivers and streams so, this movement of water causes erosion. The water from higher to lower position makes the soil intense and on the other case.
When water causes erosion in upward, increase the areas into slope or pile. The primary step in this type of erosion is upright motion of soil. The secondary or second phase make valley-wide and makes a low water flowing site. Thus sedimentation starts and erosion takes place. In this case, movement or flowing of water is directly proportional to sedimentation.
Very quick flow of water is called flood. Floods are a very common cause of soil erosion floodwater takes a huge of the mass of soil pile gradients with it. The faster flowing or running water of flood can also carry rocky or hilly places.
The moving air is called wind. Wind cannot be negligible in erosion point of view. The wind is a real cause of soil integration, escaping of water from the surface of the soil, uprooting of plants, contamination of the atmosphere and damaging the crops wind carry soil particles away, form the surface of Earth. Wind causes the deficiency of minerals in the soil. Wind affects greatly in desert regions.
Factors affecting soil erosion
Rainfall is a very important factor regarding soil erosion with the H2O. The quantity of water of rainfall is noticeable as a concern of disintegration point of view. The quick rainfall in barren land causes much destruction.
Temperature also plays a significant role because it impacts on plants and property of land. The speed of droplets of water of rainfall is a key thing. The effect of high-speed drops is greater than low-speed drops.
Soil structure and composition
The arrangement and constituent of the soil are vital things in the description of the erosion of soil by rainy water. The floor of soil which has a high content of silicates of aluminium contend to erosions effect on the other hand the soil with a lower amount of clay does not oppose the erosion at a high percentage. The land has a higher value of minerals contend more to disintegration.
Water holding capacity is very vital. The land which has a higher content of H2O more will be erosion. Wetlands are affected harshly by land erosion.
The areas which are highly vegetated resistant to erosion plants opposed the wind, thus stunned the disintegration of the land. Vegetation make a compact pellet inland by their bases cutting of trees faster the degree of erosions.
Topography of land
The hilly areas are more affected because of the force of gravitation. The degree of erosion in plains is lower than that of rocky hills.
Anthropogenic activities and soil erosion
Uses of land for agriculture.
Vegetation is destructed due to agriculture purposes Heavy and advanced machinery is used nowadays for cultivation. The process of ploughing gives space to water for erosion. The extensive use of chemicals makes eliminate all soil living creatures.
The land is make irrigated, which lost its binding structure. The loss of many important minerals like P will rank the integration. Ploughing changes the land into many tiny fine fragments. Which could have been picked by the action of air. The increase of barren land provides the wind more space to run at faster rates. These all things promotes the disintegration of land.
Cleaning or cutting of forest for various purposes is called deforestation. The forest has a rich content of nutrients. There are different layers of the plant covering from soil to peaks of vegetation.
The leaves of plants from the cover of land. These leaves are rich in organic materials. Thus piles of leaves gather over the surface of land, in this way underneath the base of land.
This layer holds the droplets of water. These droplets seep slowly down the layer and then top the soil. In this way covering is protected from the flow of. The vegetation layering slows down the speed of droplets. The base layer makes safe land from the erosion. The upper cover of plants also reduces the intensity of rainfall.
When forests are cleared disintegration increases. The base layer of leaves became out of the pictures. There will be no plants, which fallen leaves to from base covering. In these circumstances, disintegration starts.
Roads and urbanization
Spreading of urban areas affects on disintegration, of land. The main and vital harm of this process is that the base layering of soil has washed. Lowering the seeps of H2O. The other harsh is that by occupying the land and farming paved buildings, faster the velocity of the air and thus cause disintegration.
The temperature of earth is increasing gradually, and warming of a blanket of air around the soil. This change in temperature stimulates the water cycle and increases the precipitation. The increasing rate of precipitation will increase the erosions rate.
Agriculture and industries cause pollution in aquatic conditions. These are the major source of contamination of water. This contamination increases the diffusion of water into the soil. The solid matter in the floor of soil flow. These solid masses of matter are called sediments.
Thus these masses also work as contaminators. So when flowing or moving with water carries much other toxic material with it.
Airborne dust pollution
Fast-moving air takes up land grains and carries them into the atmosphere. In the atmosphere, these particles are mixed with hazardous materials. Thus air becomes polluted. This reduces the precipitation and alters the basic colouration of the upper atmosphere of the earth. As a result redness of sun is increased.
Prevention and remediation of soil erosion
The best way to prevent the disintegration of soil is to grow more and more plants. vegetation rapidly cover the base of land with the leaves. Thus will reduce air and water disintegration of soil.