Principles about toxicology and its exposure

Principles about toxicology

Principle 1:For rapid diagnosis uses toxic syndrome recognition.

Principle 2:Determination of toxicity is a route of exposure.

Principle 3:The poison makes by dose.

Principle 1: For rapid diagnose use toxic syndrome recognition

Classes of chemical

  • Classes of the toxic chemical have a group, human health can affect by a similar chemical taken in a given class.
  • A set of syndrome or toxic effect constellation into a clinical “fingerprint” a group of toxins.
  • Similarly, treat done with a given toxic syndrome.

Treatment in an emergency

Chemical emergency in early phases, unknown the exact chemical is often, for decision-making tool identification of toxic syndrome are present can be used.

Only a few observation is available for identification of toxic syndrome-like:

  • Signs of vital
  • Mental status
  • Pupil size

To treat or diagnose alike threatening condition needed identification of constellation sign and symptoms(e.g, respiratory arrest)

Therapeutic decision and patient disposition will be guided by getting information from their past and the diagnostic test result, when the time passes and averted the crisis of life-threatening.

Principle 2:determination of toxicity is a route of exposure

  •  influence toxicity of route influence is a chemical, physical state.
  • The exposure route determines by a chemical state.

At the site of absorption the toxic effect by many chemicals.

The inhalation risk aerosolizes liquid airborne powders, vapors, inhalation exposure gases.

  • Pain from burning, irritation, and copious secretion occur when the irritant gases attack the water present in respiratory mucous r eyes.
  • Entry routes of distant toxic effects are caused by inhalation exposure when they allow rapid entry into the systemic circulation.
  • Hydrogen cyanide gas rapidly enters the lungs cause loss of mental ability, cardiac disease, hypertension, and it’s possible to cause death in a few minutes.

Distant sites in the entry route and also entry site of systemic circulation are affected by dermal exposure chemicals when contact with skin.

  • For circulating distant site organophosphate insecticide chemical that is fat-soluble, that is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream when penetrating the skin.
  • The systemic effect of the skin can have a delayed onset as compared to rapid entry through the lungs.

 Principle 3; poison marked by dose

 Responses of dose

  • The basic toxicology principle called response dose base on the amount of evaluating clinical effects.
  • During exposure, the total amount of chemical known as dose.
  • Duration of exposure and concentration are the things on which the dose is dependent, dose bases cause the predictable toxic effect.
  • A good example is ethanol. predictable increase in the alternation of consciousness is due to increase incremental in blood ethanol level, week r nill coordination and depressed respiratory/ some tym suffer from coma, and finally death.


  • Dose affected by is one of the important factors in is the duration of exposure.
  • As compared to lower concentration or shorter exposure periods the long duration r high concentration is more adverse.
  • Example 1, the longe tissue destruction is due to dermal exposure (an acid placed on the skin)also says when it contact with tissue.
  • Example 2, it’s a breath toxic chemical that is inhalation exposure, it’s a greater dose exposure.

Dose responses principle application

For the patient assessment of toxic chemical exposure, all the above dose responses are helpful. its guides the patient assessment.

High dose victims more harmful effects, a patient who has to take higher co centration and longer duration exposure.

Those who have taken large concentration r longer duration exposure than who take smaller concentration and lower duration have more need to attention for recover as compared to smaller taken patient.

Reviewed by:
Dr. Muhammad Adnan Asghar (Ph.D.)
Chinese Academy of Sciences Fuzhou, Fujian

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