Prevalence of ABO and Rh Blood Groups in Students of University of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
Hafiz Muhammad Tahir,* Shafaat Yar Khan, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Mohsin Ahsan
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan.
The aim of the present study was to record the prevalence of ABO and Rh blood groups among the graduate and post graduate students of University of Sargodha. A total of 1341 individuals (449 males and 892 females) were screened for blood group testing. Blood group B was the most common in both sexes. The AB blood group was least common. About 90% individuals were Rh positive. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups are similar to those reported from other regions of Punjab. Data generated with this study will be helpful to the health planners, blood banks and blood donating societies in the area.
Keywords: ABO blood groups, Rh factor, blood transfusion.
In humans, approximately 400 red blood antigens and 19 blood groups systems have been identified (Rehman et al., 2005; Khattak et al., 2008). Both ABO and Rh blood group systems are considered important during blood transfusions. Although the blood group systems are same among all human beings but the prevalence of ABO and Rh groups is different in various parts of the world and in different races. The study of ABO blood group system is of immense interest, due to its medical importance in different diseases and its role in blood transfusion, forensic pathology and its association with different diseases like duodenal ulcer (Hoffbrand and Pettit, 2006), diabetes mellitus (Garraty et al., 2000) and urinary tract infection (Rehman et al., 2005). Blood group system is considered one of the strongest predictors of national suicide rate and a genetic marker of obesity (Mollison et al., 1993; Hein et al., 2005). Study of blood group is helpful to know the genetic history of a person (Sokolov, 1993). For example, protein intake is very high among the individuals of blood group O and they generally secrete higher stomach acids and experience more incidence of gastric ulcer disease than the other groups. However, individuals of blood group A are associated with vegetarian food sources and secrete smaller amounts of stomach acid and have lesser chances for gastric ulcers, heart diseases, cancer and diabetes (Viola and Carolyn, 1991). From above review it is clear that blood group determination is very important in
clinical practice. Keeping in view of this fact
present study was planned. Aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ABO and Rh blood group systems in district Sargodha and to compare the results with other studies conducted in Pakistan and in other parts of the world.
Materials and methods
The study was conducted during the month of February, 2011 and March, 2012. Only the data of graduate and post graduate students (both males and females) belonging to Sargodha region were included in this study. Each donor was informed about the purpose of the study. Blood samples were taken under aseptic conditions using finger prick method. ABO and Rh blood groups were
determined by agglutination test using antisera-A, antisera-B and antisera-D. A total of 1341 (892 females and 449 males) individuals were screened for the blood group testing. The number of the females screened for the ABO and Rh blood groups was high as in University of Sargodha ratio of females students is very high.
A total of 1341 students were screened for blood group testing. Percentage of A, B, AB and O blood groups among male and female students is given in Table I. In both sexes the most common blood group was B, followed by O and A. AB blood group was lowest in frequency. Out of the total samples, 90.43% males comprised of Rh positive and remaining 9.57 were Rh negative. However, in females frequency of Rh positive and Rh negative was 88.91% and 11.09%, respectively (Table II).
|Table I.- Frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood groups among graduate and postgraduate students of University of Sargodha.|
No. % No. %
A 98 22.0 163 18.0
B 179 40.0 369 41.0
AB 53 12.0 119 13.0
O 119 26.0 241 274.0
Rh blood group
+ 402 90.0 793 89.0
– 43 10.0 99 11.0
ABO blood group system is considered the most important during blood transfusions as the most of deaths from blood transfusion occurs when incompatible type of ABO blood is transfused (Sarban, 2009). It has also been found that susceptibility of certain diseases is linked with the ABO blood groups. According to Stayboldt et al. (1987) gastric cancers are more common among the persons of A blood group. Furthermore, coronary heart disease, ischemic heart disease, venous thrombosis and atherosclerosis are also more frequent among the individuals with A blood
|Table II.- Comparison of distribution of rhesus (Rh) blood groups in the current study and other parts of the world.|
Study area Rh positive (%) Rh negative (%)
Bahrain 94.5 4.5
Britain 83 17
India (Punjab) 97.3 2.7
Iran 88.7 11.3
Kenya 96.1 3.9
Nigeria 95.67 4.33
Present study 89.67 10.33
Saudi Arabia 92 8
USA 85 15
Yemen 92.9 7.1
Note: Data of different countries for comparison was taken from Khattak et al. (2008).
group. The individuals of blood group O are more susceptible to gastric and duodenal ulcers (Hoffbrand and Pettit, 2006). Khan et al. (2010) also found higher incidence of male infertility among the individuals of O blood group.
In our study the most common ABO blood group was B, followed by O and A. Most of the studies conducted in Pakistan described the similar general pattern of distribution of ABO blood group (Rehman et al., 2005; Anees and Mirza, 2005; Hussain et al., 2001). Khan et al. (2004) conducted a study to record the prevalence of ABO blood group system in Bannu region NWFP. According to this study frequency of B was highest (36.23%), followed by A (31.03%), O (25.07%) and AB (7.67%). In Punjab and NWFP B blood group is most prevalent (Rahman and Lodhi, 2004; Khan et al., 2005; Majeed and Hayee, 2002). However, in Sind and Baluchistan O group is predominant (Amjad et al., 2002; Hussain et al., 2001; Khaskheli et al., 1994). The difference in the distribution of blood group is expected due racial variation in different provinces.
Das et al. (2001) reported the blood group O (38.75%) as most common from South India, followed by B (32.69%) and A (18.85%). Another study from India (Punjab) showed highest prevalence of B (37.6%) blood group, followed by O (31.2%) and A (21.9%). Shaik and El-Zyan (2006) reported O (34.7%) as most common blood
group from Iran. It was followed by A (33.1%) and B (23.3%). Distribution pattern of ABO blood group was same in Saudi Arabia, Oman, Kuwait and Bahrain with O as the most common blood group followed by A and B. O blood group is characteristic of these countries. Prevalence of AB blood group was less than 5% in these countries (Sarban, 2009).
Of the total 1341, about 90% individuals were Rh positive in the present study. A comparison of Rh blood groups of the current study and with other studies in Pakistan and studies from other parts of the world is given in Table III. It is clear from the comparison that there is shortage of Rh negative blood group in the population.
It is concluded from the study that, like other regions of Punjab, the most common blood group in the Sargodha region is B. AB blood group is the lowest in frequency. About 90% of the studied population was with Rh positive blood group. This information is important for the blood banks and blood donating societies as well as health planners.
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(Received 5 April 2012, revised 1 May 2012)
Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 44(4), pp. 1183-1184, 2012.