Effect of lead deposition in the skeletal muscles

The lead deposition effect on the human body in the form of toxicity has a significant effect on the function and, the structure of the muscles caused due to deposition of different types of drugs or chemicals.

Structure of the muscular-skeletal system:

The skeletal system consists of bones of the skeletal system, cartilages, and also other connective tissues. These all support the bones to maintain body functions to normal.
Effects of toxin (Lead).
Lead has harmful effects on many body organs, it disturbed the body’s normal functions.
Lead has been widely used over the world for 9000 years. These uses are the following.
· It is widely used in painting.
· It is also used in plumbing.
· Pb also used in pesticides.
In gasoline also have significant.
Similarly, the dispersal of lead in the environment has rapidly increased over the last three centuries. They occur unfortunately but has a significant effect on humans. When lead ingested, it directly attacks different organs of the body. These organs are the following:
· It has a significant effect on the reproductive system
· The kidney also affected by it
· Neurological defects
· Cognitive effects
A potential carcinogen also occurs.

Limitations for the use of Lead:

Legislation has passed to reduce human exposure to lead in the environment. These laws stimulate the limited use of lead and also fix the standards for acceptable environmental levels.
Despite these standards, Pb creates problems due to several reasons. Firstly when laws and legislation have been effective in reducing the lead exposure and also the use of Pb in the countries that only useful by it. 
Secondly, the provision of input is too low to overcome the exposure of lead. When lead deposited in the environment, it can not easily break and clings the topsoil firmly, where it may remain on it indefinitely.
Thirdly, when a lead enters the body, it can be deposited in the skeleton and slowly released back in soft tissues of the body.

The body is Major Reservoir of Lead:

It has confirmed that the human body is the main storeroom for Pb. The half part of their life of Pb is 20 to 30 years, once it stored in the body of a human. Experiments using lead isotopes show that 40 to 70% of blood lead originates from-releasing repositories of skeletal.
With time the deposited lead was released back into the body circulations. This secondary dispersal of lead is done irrespectively as the present environmental level of leads.
Routes of Exposures:
The primary route of absorption of lead in the body is oral ingestion of lead, in an average population, 99% of lead is uptaken by oral ingestion. The other is 1% inhalation. The additional physiological differences that can cause more exposures to lead is mouthing and grasping. Young children’s intestinal tract absorbs 30 to 40% of ingested lead; this is also a physiological difference. On the other hand, an adult can absorb only 5 to 10% of absorbed lead. The quantity of drinking lead in the children is 30 to 40% higher than an adult that inhaled lead into the bloodstreams.
Another source of lead deposition in the body is a cut in the skin that causes the deposition of Pb in the body. Skin absorbed by different types of chemicals that are tetraethyl and tetramethyl lead species. In adults’ absorption of Pb is reduced rather than young ones, lead bioaccumulates over time in adults, due to Pb’s release is slow from the body.

Bioaccumulation of lead
In_fact bioaccumulation of Pb is due to its too long lifetime in the human body and highly resistant persistence in the environment; this leads to continuously exposures. On the other hand, the increasing quantity of Pb in the background also increases body weight. The preindustrial skeletons contain 50 to 200 folds lower leads than a modern structure.
Level of blood
Blood level consists of low assessing for long-term exposure because lead has 30 days of half-life in the blood. The 99% lead is bounded with erythrocytes while ingested and inhaled lead absorbed into the bloodstream. Pb concentration in the blood can pass through the brain barrier of blood and in the placenta. Lead sampling in the blood is the easiest way to studied more extensively. 
Intracellular concentrations of lead(Pb)
The concentration of lead in different cells is different because cells are of different types, and they can absorb the various lead quantity in each of them. The cells of the dorsal root of ganglia can not absorb or hinder the entry of lead in the cells, while on the other hand, cells of the Chinese hamster ovary can take up 97 uM lead. Osteoblasts and chondrocytes are the skeleton cells and can absorb lead levels up to 120 to 180nM. These levels are comparable with intracellular calcium level and also determine that lead is transported by the same cation transporter bivalent.
Skeleton and Teeth
A healthy level of affinity carried out from the divalent cation for the calcified- tissue of dentition and skeleton. This process shows that dentine and enamel in pre and postnatal forms correlate with blood level at their formation. The tooth level of lead also used to determine lead exposure in adults.
 The half-life of lead in cortical bone is higher than in trabecular bone, due to its slower turnover rate. The distribution of Pb is not uniform throughout the bone. On the other hand, long-term treatment of lead in goats results in the highest skeletal lead in the trabecular bone with 10% more than the cortical bones than the bones of the surroundings.
How to Measure Bone Lead Level in The subject?
K- shell- x-ray fluorescence spectrometry -can regulate the bone lead level in the surrounding subjects. The latest versions of these instruments can use a CD drive for the production of gamma rays. This K-XRF – system- has more costly value than any of others before the invention of this type or this system recognizes the highly accurate lead level than any of other in 2 to 4 gram of bone range.

Reviewed by:
Dr. Muhammad Khalid Mukhtar (Ph.D.)
University of Sargodha, Sargodha

%d bloggers like this: